I need help with ethics

I need help with ethics. Ethics

Fall 2021

Definitions
● Deontology
● Maxim
● inclination
● imperative
● Hypothetical Imperative
● Categorical Imperative
● Practical Imperative (Principle of Dignity)
● Autonomy
● heteronomy
● Means/ends distinction
● Instrumental versus intrinsic value
● psychological hedonism
● ethical hedonism
● Utilitarianism (Rule/Act)
● Principle of Utility
● Hedonic calculus
● A priori/a posteriori knowledge
● Supererogatory/supererogation

Understand and know about the following concepts and/or themes
Immanuel Kant:
● What is deontology?
● What is the “Good Will”? What does Kant mean when he says that the Good Will is the only thing that is good in the world “without qualification”? In contrast, what does it mean for something to be “good with qualification” and what sort of things does Kant consider good with qualification? (hint: wealth, virtue, wit, intelligence etc.)
● How important is the motive of a moral act for Kant? How important is the outcome of a moral act?
● Who do moral laws apply to, according to Kant?
● Why does Kant believe that inclination has no place in ethical decision-making?
● What are the three propositions of morality?
● What is a “hypothetical imperative”?
● What is the “Categorical Imperative”?
● What is the Practical Imperative / the “Principle of Dignity”?
● What are his 4 examples of perfect versus imperfect duties to oneself/ to others?
● What is the difference between perfect and imperfect duties, i.e., what happens when one tries to universalize the maxim in a perfect duty versus an imperfect duty?
● Is it ever permissible to lie according to Kant? Is it every permissible to steal?
● What does Kant mean when he says that we should treat people as ends-in-themselves, not merely as means? What kind of value does an end have versus a means?
● What does Kant mean by autonomy? What does he mean by heteronomy?
● What does Kant mean by the “dear self”?
● Does Kant believe that being moral will lead to happiness?
● What are some of the strengths of Kant’s theory? What are some weaknesses?

Utilitarianism:
● What is the difference between rule utilitarianism and act utilitarianism? How is rule utilitarianism supposed to circumvent some of the problems of act utilitarianism? What are some problems of rule and act utilitarianism, respectively?
● Why is Utilitarianism“social hedonism”?
● According to John Stuart Mill and the utilitarians, which component of ethical decisions is most

important?
● What is the Principle of Utility?
● What is the hedonic calculus and how is it applied? What are the units of pleasure and pain called?
● How does Bentham argue to potentially include nonhuman entities in moral considerations? What is the criterion for something to be included in moral consideration?
● How does Mill “improve” Bentham’s Utilitarianism?
● Are all pleasures equally good according to Mill?
● What are higher pleasures versus lower pleasures and how are they distinguished?
● Why is it better to “be a human being dissatisfied than a pig satisfied” according to Mill?
● How does Mill explain the fact that people frequently choose lower over higher pleasures?
● How should a utilitarian weigh his or her own interest/happiness versus the interests of others in his ethical calculations? Does anyone’s happiness count more than anybody else’s?
● What are some objections to Utilitarianism?
● What are some practical problems of Utilitarianism?

I need help with ethics

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